When the stars are young, they are wrapped in a wide and flat material circle. Astronomers call this feature “protoplanetary discs” because dust and gas accumulate on the ball which eventually becomes a planet. Researchers have long suspected that “planetesimal” – a semi-warm world on this disc – can create a wide gap in the ocean of loose material that a telescope can detect.
Now, this two-planet theory confirms 70 are found in a disk gap around the PDS, a small star in the Centaurus constellation, 370 light years from Earth.
PDS 70 is a relatively new star in our galaxy that originated around 6 million years ago. (In comparison, our Sun is around 4.5 billion years old.) And the alien star is still surrounded by a disc that can be seen by astronomers through telescopes.
This plate has a large gap in it, a place without dust and gas seen by mankind’s most advanced telescope, ALMA, a series of radio telescopes in the Atacama Desert and the Hubble Space Telescope. 70 PDS covers 1.9 billion miles of stars (3.1 billion miles) to 3.8 billion miles (6.1 billion kilometers). or farther from the star than the average distance from Pluto. from the sun.
In early July 2018, the Southern Observatory Large Telescope (VLT) saw a giant planet between 4 and 17 times the mass of Jupiter, which reached 70 PDS near the inner edge of this gap. Astronomers call this planet PDS 70b. Now scientists have revealed in a new article published on Monday (June 3) in the journal Nature Astronomy, that there are other planets in this gap.
The newly discovered Planet PDS 70c has a mass of 1 to 10 times greater than Jupiter. This world moves closer to the outer edge of a cliff, at a distance like 5.3 billion kilometers of Neptune. The 70S PDS orbits its star once every two larger inner orbits.
“We were very surprised when we found a second planet,” Sebastian Hafert, an astronomer at the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands and lead author, said in a statement.
None of this shows that protoplanetary disk defects like this are common on young planets, write the researchers. But the results are impressive.
“With facilities such as ALMA, Hubble and large ground-based optical telescopes … we see discs with rings and holes everywhere. The open question is, is there a planet there? In this case, the answer is” yes, “Julien Girard Astronomers Research Institute for Space Telescope in Baltimore and author of the article stated in a statement.
The discovery of the extrasolar planet in such errors is a challenge, because to make it visible, the earth discs must show a flat face, not the tip. But astronomers usually find exoplanets indirectly by watching and passing their stars. Planets orbiting discs that face the earth will never walk between earth and stars, so that such a world must be directly imaged. And while thousands of exoplanets are found indirectly, direct discovery is rare.
This is only the second multi-tier system that has been directly imaged, the researchers said. These two planets are part of dozens of extrasolar planets that have been found directly.
Along the way, researchers say they hope to train telescopes other than VLT, planets to learn more about them and to deepen scientists’ understanding of how young planets are formed and formed by protoplanetary disks.