Recent discoveries can explain why living with feces can be beneficial to human health. Scientists have found that bacteria that are transmitted through the soil produce anti-inflammatory fatty acids that can stimulate stress resistance.
Researchers at the University of Colorado at Boulder (CU Boulder) conducted a study that examined Mycobacterium vaccae, a bacterium that feeds on organic matter.
Previous research with laboratory cells and animals showed that M. vaccae can reduce inflammation and prevent stress.
However, as the authors of the latest book “Psychopharmacology” for their work, “underlying molecular mechanisms that explain M. vaccae’s anti-inflammatory effects are unknown.
In the new study, the researchers “eradicated and identified unique anti-inflammatory triglycerides” from soil bacteria. Next, they synthesize and test the version of fat-free fatty acids in mouse immune cells.
These fatty acids are called 10 (Z) -hexadetsenova acids and the team used “next generation sequencing techniques” to investigate their interactions with macrophages, a type of immune cell.
Researchers have seen that fatty acids bind to specific receptors or protein signals in cells. In turn, this event blocks a series of molecular pathways that trigger inflammation. The name receptor is a proliferator-active peroxisome-activated receptor (PPAR).
Additional experiments show that the treatment of immune cells with fatty acids before stimulation increases their inflammatory resistance.
Soil bacteria have a direct protective effect
“We think,” said senior study author Christopher Lowry, assistant professor of integrative physiology at CU Boulder, “who has a special sauce that manages the protective effects on these bacteria, and this fat is one of the main ingredients in this case. Special sauce. “
He said these findings were “a big step forward for us because we identified the active components of bacteria and receptors for active components in the recipient.”
The interaction between anti-inflammatory fatty acids and immune cells is a product of human co-evolution and soil bacteria, Laura said.
Macrophages are immune cells that remove pathogens such as bacteria by eating them. They play a central role in inflammation.
According to Laurie, soil bacteria release anti-inflammatory fatty acids immediately after entering immune cells. This then binds PPAR and closes “inflammation of the inflammation”.
The result is further evidence that contact with soil bacteria supports human health in a different way than previously adopted by scientists.
The other side of the hygienic effect
Several decades ago, when no more sophisticated analytical techniques were available, scientists could see little of what was happening at the molecular level in cells. All are able to show that exposure to microorganisms seems to be beneficial to health.
These studies have encouraged British scientist David Strachan to enforce the term hygiene cleanliness in 1989.
The theory is that more modern human life takes him out of the Earth and interacts with livestock, so that his body loses cooperation with microorganisms. This damages the immune system and increases the risk of allergies and asthma.
First, the assumption behind the hygiene hypothesis is exposure to potentially dangerous microorganisms that help the immune system develop resistance to it.
However, researchers such as Lowry and his team have redefined the hygiene hypothesis to add another page to the shared evolutionary history.
Not only is exposure of sick bacteria to immunity, but also that beneficial soil microbes can actively stimulate health through direct molecular interactions with immune cells.
In a previous work, Laurie has described various ways in which exposure to beneficial bacteria has a positive effect on mental health.
For example, one study has shown that children on farms have an immune system that is more resistant to stress and less susceptible to mental illness than children who grow up in cities without pets.
Another study showed that injection of mice with M. vaccae had the same effect on behavior as an antidepressant. This treatment also has a long-lasting anti-inflammatory effect in the brain.
Studies have shown that an inflammatory response that is too high can increase the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress related diseases.