According to a new study, Neanderthals can disappear because the birth rate decreases slightly.
The last Neanderthals, the next extinct human relatives, disappeared from Europe some 40,000 years ago. Previous studies have shown that the total points of the Neanderthal population are highest in Europe and Asia quite a lot and not more than 70,000 people.
Scientists have long debated whether the spread of modern humans around the world helped kill Neanderthals, either directly through conflict or indirectly through the spread of disease.
“The loss of the Neanderthal population is an interesting topic – introducing a group of people who have lived thousands of years and are very well adapted to their environment, and later disappeared” senior researcher Silvana Kondemi, paleoanthropology researcher from Aix-Marseille University, investigating Marseille, France, telling Live Science. “It has long been suspected that Homo Sapiens has just killed a Neanderthal.” Today, thanks to the results of genetic analysis, we know that the meeting between Neanderthals and Sapienza is not always so cruel and that there was a crossover – even now genes from Neanderthal origin. “
Instead of investigating why Neanderthals disappeared, “sought” as “their deaths,” Condemi said. In particular, the researchers produced a computer model that examined how the Neanderthal population declined and, over time, disappeared in response to various factors such as war, epidemics, and decreased fertility or survival in men and women of various ages.
“Very quickly we found something unexpected – this elimination that has been going on for a very long time cannot be explained by the catastrophic event,” said Kondimi. Computer models show that modern humans killed Neanderthals through wars or epidemics found that these factors would make Neanderthals disappear much faster than 4,000 to 10,000 years in archaeological records that modern humans and Neanderthals existed in Europe, according to scientists.
The researchers also found that increased survival among older children, but a sharp decline in birth rates seen in Neanderthal was likely a reason for the long decline. Instead, they found that Neanderthal extinction was possible, in 10,000 years, a 2.7% decline in the fertility of young Neanderthal women – mothers who were aged 20 – and within 4,000 years with 8% of maternity leave in the same group.
“The loss of Neanderthals may be due to a slight decrease in fertility among younger women,” said Kondimi. “This is a phenomenon with a limited scope that has changed over time.”
Various factors may have reduced this birth rate. Condemi noted that pregnancy in the first young mother “averages risk as a second pregnancy or later. The minimum number of calories is important for maintaining your pregnancy, and a reduction in calorie intake and your diet has a negative effect on your pregnancy.”
Neanderthals disappeared during climate change. Fluctuations in the environment might have caused a slight decrease in food and in turn “could explain the reduction in fertility,” said Condemi.
Condemi found that previous research showed that modern humans “when the average number of births worldwide decreased to 1.3 in women, our species disappeared after 300 years. This is not a possible model, but the results will be very fast!”