These first Americans disappeared without a trace – but their tracks remained

Science

No member survived a group of ancient and mysterious people who had lived in North America for thousands of years. So far, scientists thought they were lost without a trace.

However, new research shows that genes from this ceiling group live in several local cultures today.

The conclusion is surprising because other studies show that humans – one of the first groups of people to arrive in North America – have made little genetic contributions to North America later.

Using the latest techniques, new studies show that this does not happen. “They have never been like that,” said author group chairman Stephan Shifal in population genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Science for History in Germany. “They really contribute to the living.”

The first wave of migrants arrived in North America for 14,500 years, possibly crossing the land bridge of the Bering Strait during the last Ice Age. But with the start of the ice age and the melting of glaciers, sea level rose and flooded bridges. Then archaeological evidence shows that the next large wave of humans arrived around 5,000 years ago, possibly by boat, Schiffel said. This is the group of people studied in the new study.

Then people continued to come to America. More than 800 years ago, the ancestors of the Inuit and Yupik today emerged and after 100 years the palette group disappeared 5000 years ago according to archaeological evidence.

What happened to this Paleo group? To explore more of the Shifals and their associates, including the first study author Paul Flegontov, professor of science in the Department of Biology and Ecology at the University of Ostrava in the Czech Republic, kneeling in the genetics of these mysterious people.

The team received permission from a modern local group to extract very small bone samples from the remains of 48 ancient individuals found in the Arctic of America and Siberia. The scientists then melt these bone samples into dust to restore and explore DNA.

Furthermore, scientists analyzed the genomes of 93 contemporary individuals from Siberia, Alaska, Aleutian Islands and Canada. The researchers examined most of the genomes that had been published from this region.

The new method for rare genetic mutations to look for the paleo group and other genealogy modeling methods, the researchers found that the paleo group had left strong genetic fingerprints behind; Their genes are found in modern humans who speak Eskimo-Aleut and nadenski, their communities are Athabascan and Tlingit from Alaska, North Canada and the US West Coast and the Southwest.

Scientists have produced so much data that they can make a holistic model that explains the old gene exchange between Siberia and America. This model shows that people talk about Na-Dene, people in the Aleutian Islands and Yup’ik Inuit in the Arctic and all the origins of the population associated with the Siberian Paleo group, the researchers said.

“This is the first study to describe all of these populations in a single, coherent model,” Schiffels said in a statement.

According to the model, after the Paleo group arrived in Alaska before 5000 and 4000 years, they mixed with people who had the same ancestry from the people of southern India. The offspring of these compounds are the ancestors of the Aleut and Athabasca people. [25 unclear archaeological discoveries]

In addition, the ancestors of Inuit and Jupiter did not even dare to travel from Siberia to North America. They went back and forth like Ballpong, crossing the Bering Strait at least three times, the researchers found. First, these ancient people crossed to Alaska like this original Paleolithic group; then return to Chukotka, Siberia; third, they traveled back to Alaska as carriers of Thule culture, the predecessor of modern and yupski Inuit cultures from Alaska, the Arctic and the Arctic. During his stay in Chukotka – a long time that lasted more than 1,000 years – the ancestors of the Inuit and Yupika tribes mingled with local groups. The genes of this offspring remain in modern humans in southeast Siberia and Siberia.

“There’s a reason why it’s been so difficult,” Schiffles said alive. “This population is very closely related and it is very difficult to distinguish different ancestral components.”

The study was published yesterday (June 5) in the online journal Nature. In another study conducted by Nature, published yesterday, researchers found that human teeth since 31,000 years ago remained the oldest direct evidence for Siberian society.

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